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Faculty & Staff - Per Erik Garder


Per Erik Garder, Ph.D P.E.Per
Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering

302 Boardman Hall
University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469-5711
Phone: (207) 581-2177
Fax: (207) 581-3888
Email: Garder@Maine.edu

Education:

Ph.D in Civil Engineering
University of Lund, Sweden, 1982.

M.S in Civil Engineering
University of Lund, Sweden, 1975.

Courses:

CIE 225 Transportation Engineering
CIE 424 Urban Transportation Planning
CIE 425 Transportation Safety
CIE426 Advanced Roadway Design

Research Interest:

Professor Gårder’s research interest is focused on forecasting, designing and evaluating facilities with emphasis on traffic safety and environmental aspects. He has been conducting research on the effect of continuous shoulder rumble strips along highways; safety of pedestrians and bicyclists; the effect of different intersection lay-outs and controls, such as signalized intersections and roundabouts; driver stress evaluation in intelligent vehicle highway systems; conflict studies; and studies on the value of time.  The results of his research can be found in publications.  For more information about Professor Gårder’s research, click here.

Refereed Articles in Major Journals

- Md. Saidul Islam, Volodymyr Serhiyenko, John N. Ivan, Nalini Ravishanker, Per Erik Garder, Explaining Pedestrian Safety Experience at Urban and Suburban Street Crossings Considering Observed Conflicts and Pedestrian Counts, accepted by the Journal of Transportation Safety & Security in December 2013 (a Taylor & Francis publication)

- Lars Leden, Per Gårder, Anna Schirokoff, Hector Monterde-i-Bort, Charlotta Johansson and Socrates Basbas, “A sustainable city environment through child safety and mobility—a challenge based on ITS?” Accident Analysis & Prevention June 2013

- Lars Leden, Per Gårder, Charlotta Johansson and Anna Schirokoff, “Improving child safety on the road network—a future based on ITS?” Traffic Engineering and Control (TEC) 53(5) pp 183-188, May 2012

- Gautam Divekar, Hasmik Mehranian, Matthew R. E. Romoser, Jeffrey W. Muttart, Per Garder, John Collura, Donald L. Fisher, “Predicting Drivers’ Route Choices when Given Categorical and Numerical Information on Delays Ahead: The Effect of Age, Experience, and Prior Knowledge,” Transportation Research Record—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No 2248, pp 104-110, National Research Council, Washington D.C., December 2011

- Nathan P. Belz and Per E. Gårder (corresponding author), “Maine Statewide Deployment and Integration of Advanced Traveler Information Systems,” Transportation Research Record—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board–No 2129, pp 16-23, National Research Council, Washington D.C., December 2009

 - Jörgen Lundälv, Per Gårder, Ralf Risser , Lars Leden, “Police Cycle-Patrols in Finland: A Qualitative Study Applying the Diamond Model,” the Police Journal, Volume 81, pp 323-335, (Vathek Publishing, Isle of Man, the UK), February 2009

-  Zuxuan Deng, John N. Ivan, Per E. Garder, “Analysis of Factors Affecting the Severity of Head-On Crashes on Two-Lane Rural Highways in Connecticut,” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No 1953, pp 137-146, National Research Council, Washington D.C., November 2006

Per Gårder, Michael Davies, “Safety Effect of Continuous Shoulder Rumble Strips on Rural Interstates in Maine,” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No 1953, pp 56-162, National Research Council, Washington D.C., November 2006

- Per Gårder, “Segment Characteristics and Severity of Head-on Crashes on Two-Lane Rural Highways in Maine,” Accident Analysis and Prevention Volume 38, Issue 4, pp. 652-661, July 2006

- Lars Leden, Per-Erik Wikström, Per Gårder, Peter Rosander, “Safety and Accessibility Effects of Code Modifications and Traffic Calming of an Arterial,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 455-461, May 2006

- Lars Leden, Per Gårder, Charlotta Johansson, “Safe Pedestrian Crossings for Children and and Elderly,” Accident Analysis and Prevention Volume 38, Issue 2, pp. 289–294, March 2006

- Per Gårder, “The Impact of Speed and Other Variables on Pedestrian Safety in Maine,” Accident Analysis and Prevention Volume 36, Issue 4, pp. 501-696, July 2004

- Charlotta Johansson, Per Gårder, Lars Leden, “Towards Vision Zero at Zebra Crossings – A Case Study in Malmö, Sweden on Traffic Safety and Mobility for Children and Elderly,” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No 1828, pp 67-74, National Research Council, Washington D.C., August 2003

- Bhagwant Persaud, Richard Retting, Per Gårder, and Dominique Lord, “Safety Effect of Roundabout Conversions in the United States: Empirical Bayes Observational Before-After Study,” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board No. 1751, Geometric Design and the Effects on Traffic Operations 2001, pp 1–8, National Research Council, Washington D.C., November 2001

- Bhagwant Persaud, Richard Retting, Per Gårder, and Dominique Lord, “Crash and Injury Reductions Following Installation of Roundabouts in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health Vol. 91, No. 4, pp. 628-631, April 2001

- Per Gårder and Lars Leden, “Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling,” Nordic Road & Transport Research. Number 3, 2000, pp.12-15, December 2000

- Per Gårder, Lars Leden, and Uhro Pulkkinen, “An Expert Judgment Model Applied to Estimating the Safety Effect of a Bicycle Facility,” Accident Analysis and Prevention Volume 32 Issue 4, pp. 589-599, July 2000

- Per Gårder, “Little Falls, Gorham—Reconstruction to a Modern Roundabout,” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No. 1658 Highway Geometric Design and Operational Effect Issues, pp 17 –24, National Research Council, Washington D.C., August, 1999

- Per Gårder, Lars Leden, and Uhro Pulkkinen, “Measuring the Safety Effect of Raised Bicycle Crossings Using a New Research Methodology,” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No. 1636, Safety and Human Performance, pp 71-76, National Research Council, Washington D.C., November 1998

- Per Gårder and Lars Leden, “Key Areas of Traffic Safety Work According to European Experts,” Nordic Road & Transport Research, No. 2, 1998, pp. 20-22, August 1998

- Per Gårder. “Rumble Strips or Not Along Wide Shoulders Designated for Bicycle Traffic.” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No. 1502, pp. 1-7, TRB, National Research Council, Washington D.C., 1995

- Per Gårder. “Bicycle Accidents in Maine: An Analysis.” Transportation Research Records—the Journal of the Transportation Research Board—No. 1438: Safety and Human Performance-Research Issues on Bicycling, Pedestrians, and Older Drivers, pp. 34-41, National Research Council, Washington D.C., 1994. (Also presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of TRB in January 1994 as TRB Preprint 940328)

- Per Gårder, Lars Leden & Torbjörn Thedéen. “Safety Implications of Bike Paths at Signalized Intersections.” Accident Analysis & Prevention Volume 26, No. 4, pp. 429-439, 1994

 

Full Papers in Refereed/Reviewed Conference Proceedings

- Per Gårder, “All-Wheel Drive and Winter-Weather Safety,” accepted for presentation at TRB 2014 and 93rd Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2014

- Nathan P. Belz, Lisa Aultman-Hall, Per E. Garder, Brian H.Y. Lee, “An Event-Based Framework for Non-Compliant Driver Behavior at Single-Lane Roundabouts,” accepted for presentation at TRB 2014

- Per Gårder, “Fuel Consumption at a Modern Roundabout vs. a Signalized Intersection: A case study comparing two similar intersections in Bangor, Maine.” 91st Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2012

- T. Olaf Johnson and Per Gårder, “An Evaluation of the Effects of Different Driver Groups on 1 Control Delay at a Low-Volume Roundabout Approach in Bangor, Maine,” 91st Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2012

- Gautam Divekar, Hasmik Mehranian, Matthew R. E. Romoser, Jeffrey W. Muttart, Per Garder, John Collura, Donald L. Fisher, “Predicting Drivers’ Route Choices when Given Categorical and Numerical Information on Delays Ahead: The Effect of Age, Experience, and Prior Knowledge,” Published in the 90th Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2011 (Also published in revised form in Transportation Research Record)

- T. Olaf Johnson, Per Gårder, Adam Stern, and Jonathan Rubin, “Driver Age and Safety on Winter Roads,” Published in the 90th Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2011

- Adam Stern, Per Gårder, T. Olaf Johnson, and Jonathan Rubin, “Effects of Adverse Winter Weather on Drivers in High Risk Age Groups: Statewide Analysis,” Published in the 90th Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2011

- Hongmei Zhou, John N. Ivan, Nicholas E. Lownes, Per E. Gårder, “Differences in Gap Acceptance of Elderly Drivers,” Published in the 89th Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers, January 2010

- Lars Leden, Per Gårder, Charlotta Johansson, and Peter Rosander, “Bus Humps or Virtual Bumps Or Both?” Towards Future Traffic Safety—20th ICTCT -Workshop in Valencia, Spain on October 25-26, 2007

- Charlotta Johansson, Per Gårder, Lars Leden, “Two Case Studies on Urban Traffic Planning for Children and Elderly,” presented at the WCTR 2007 – World Conference on Transport Research at the University of California Berkeley June 24-28, 2007. Conference website: http://www.uctc.net/wctrs

- Mark C. Smith, Adel W. Sadek, Ian Johnson, Lisa Aultman-Hall, and Per Garder, “Assessing the Accuracy of Roundabouts Analysis Procedures against Field Observations: Preliminary Results from a Case Study in Northern New England.  Presented at the Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2007. Published in the 86th Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM as paper 07-2868

- Charlotta Johansson, Per Gårder, Lars Leden, “A Vision for a Safe Traffic Environment for Children,” presented at the Transport Research Arena’s First European Road Transport Research Conference, Göteborg, Sweden, June 12-16, 2006

- Charlotta. Johansson, Per Gårder, Lars Leden, “Traffic environment for children and elderly as pedestrians and cyclists,” presented at the 18th ICTCT (International Co-operation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety) Workshop in Helsinki, Finland on October 27th-28th 2005

- Charlotta. Johansson, Per Gårder, Lars Leden, “Towards a safe environment for children and elderly as pedestrians and cyclists – A synthesis based on an analysis of video recordings of behaviour and police-reported crashes including in-depth studies of fatalities” Poster presentation at the International Conference on Traffic & Transport Psychology (ICTTP), 5-9 September 2004, Albert Hall, Nottingham, UK

- Charlotta Johansson, Per Gårder, Lars Leden, “The Effect of Change of Code on Safety and Mobility for Children and Elderly as Pedestrians at Marked Crosswalks– A Case Study Comparing Sweden to Finland.”  Presented at the 83rd Annual TRB Meeting as Paper 04-2659. Published in the 83rd Annual TRB Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, January 2004

- Jianhe Du, John Ivan, Per Gårder, Lisa Aultman-Hall, “Public Perceptions of Traffic-Calming Device Installation,” 2003 Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibit, August 2003

- Dale Peabody, Per Garder, Gerry Audibert, William Thompson, Michael Redmond, and Michael S. Smith, “Evaluation of a Vehicle-Actuated Warning System for Stop-Controlled Intersections Having Limited Sight Distances,” International Conference on Rural Advanced Technology and Transportation Systems, Burlington, Vermont, August 25-28, 2001

- Per Gårder, “Long-Term Evaluation of the Gorham Roundabout.” the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering 30th Annual Conference, June 5-8, 2002, Montreal

- Charlotta Johansson, Lars Leden, Kristin Nilsson, Ola Wilhelmsson  (Luleå University of Technology, Sweden) and Per Gårder, “Towards a safe environment for children – a starting point,” ICTCT’s Annual Meeting, Kaiserslautern, Germany, October 30, 1999

- Bryan Pearce, Per Gårder, “Animation of Traffic Through Roundabouts—A Decision Making Tool,” First International Conference on New Technologies for Decision Making in Civil Engineering, in Montreal, October 11-13, 1998.  Proceedings edited by Edmond T. Miresco,

- Lars Leden, Per Gårder, and Urho Pulkkinen, “Quantitative Expert Judgement Models: A New Tool to Estimate the Effect of Countermeasures,” Proceedings ICTCT 97 Conference—International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety – 5-7 November 1997, University of Lund, 1997

- Per Gårder & John Alexander. “Fatigue Related Accidents and Continuous Rumble Strips.” Published as Preprint 950132 at the 74th Annual Meeting of TRB in January 1995

- Per Gårder. “Bicycle Accidents in Maine: An Analysis.” Published as Preprint 940328 at  the 73rd Annual Meeting of TRB in January 1994.  (Also published in revised form in Transportation Research Records No. 1438, pp. 34-41)

- Lars Leden, Per Gårder & Torbjörn Thedéen.  “Combining Results From Different Studies – Applied To Bicycle Safety.”  Paper published as Preprint: International Conference The Hague, The Netherlands 22-24 September 1993.  Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) and Traffic Safety on Two Continents organized by TRB (U.S. Transportation Research Board), VTI (Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute), FERSI (Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes), FEHRL (Forum of European national Highway Research Laboratories), and CROW (Center for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering), September 1993

Other Published Reports and Papers

- John Collura and Donald Fisher and Per Gårder, “Evaluation of Dynamic Message Signs and their Effects on Older Drivers” New England University Transportation Center , Report UMAR19-12, November 30, 2009

- Hongmei Zhou, John N. Ivan, Per E. Gårder, and Nalini Ravishanker, “Gap Acceptance for Left Turns from the Major Road at Unsignalized Intersections,” refused when submitted for Presentation at the 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (January 2010) and for Publication in the Transportation Research Record

- John N. Ivan (University of Connecticut), Per E. Garder, and Adel W. Sadek (University at Buffalo), Differences in Gap Acceptance of Elderly Drivers and the Impact on Traffic Simulation Modeling, Final Report: The New England University Transportation Center Report UCNR19-10, September 2009

- Nathan P. Belz and Per Erik Garder, INTEGRATION COMPONENT OF THE ITS DEPLOYMENT PROJECT—Statewide Deployment and Integration of Dynamic Message Signs, Variable Speed Limit Signs, and Overheight Vehicle Detection Systems,  Draft final report submitted to Maine Department of Transportation, May 2008

- Per Gårder, Student Driving Skills and Safety Record, Final Report: The New England University Transportation Center Report UMEE 19-18, July 2008

- Per Gårder, Traffic Conflict Studies at Camden Hills State Park Entrances—Study for Maine Department of Transportation, Transportation Research Division, Technical Report 06-2, September 2007 also available at    http://mainegov-images.informe.org/mdot/transportation-research/pdf/report0602t.pdf

- John N. Ivan, Per E. Garder, Sumit Bindra, B. Thomas Jonsson, Hyeon-Shic Shin, Zuxuan Deng, Network-Based Highway Crash Prediction Using Geographic Information Systems, The New England Transportation Consortium, NETCR67 Project No. 04-5, June 6, 2007

- Per Gårder, Traffic Safety Studies Before and After Introduction of Red-light Running Photo Enforcement in Lewiston and Auburn, Maine, Report to FHWA and Maine Department of Transportation March 2006

- Per Gårder, Traffic Conflict Studies Before and After Introduction of Red-Light Running Photo Enforcement in Maine.  Final Report: The New England University Transportation Center Report UMER 17-10, August, 2006

- Per Gårder, Gerry Audibert and Michael Davies, Safety Effect of Continuous Shoulder Rumble Strips (CSRS) on Rural Sections of Maine Interstate and Turnpike, FHWA and Maine DOT, DRAFT accepted January 2006

- Information Technology Systems for Use in Incident Management and Work Zone Safety, Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, August 2006 (Edited by Richard H. Strauss, Executive Director)

- John N. Ivan, Per E. Garder, Zuxuan Deng and Chen Zhang, The Effect of Segment Characteristics on the Severity of Head-On Crashes on Two-Lane Rural Highways, United States Department of Transportation, Region I University Transportation Center (Project UCNR15-5) Final Report, January, 2006

- Per Gårder, “Transportation CAD Laboratory—an Education Project,” Final Report to the New England University Transportation Center (Project UMEE16-9), June 2005

- Per Gårder, “Traffic Signal Safety—Analysis of Red-Light Running in Maine,” Technical Report ME02-1, Maine Department of Transportation, May 2004

- Per Gårder, “Traffic Signal Safety Strategies—Analysis of Red-Light Running in Maine,” Final Report to the New England University Transportation Center (Project UMER14-6), May 24, 2004

- Per Gårder and Nicolas Bosonetto, “Quantifying Roadside Rest Area Usage.” the New England Transportation Consortium, Project 99-4, NETCR38, November 2002. Also available electronically through http://www.netc.uconn.edu

- Per Gårder and Bryan Pearce, Web Version of the Roundabout Simulation Model, New England University Transportation Center, July 2002

- Per Gårder, John Ivan and Jianhe Du “Traffic Calming of State Highways: Application New England,” New England University Transportation Center, July 2002

- Per Gårder, “Pedestrian Safety in Maine,” Final Report, Report ME00-2, Maine Department of Transportation, May 2002

- John Ivan, Per Gårder and Sylvia Zajac, “Finding Strategies to Improve Pedestrian Safety in Rural Areas,” Final Report UCNR 12-7 United States Department of Transportation, Region I University Transportation Center, October 2001

- Per Gårder & Lars Leden, “Strategic R & D Program for Safe Mobility: Promoting safe walking and cycling,” Report no 14 from the SRS project. VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Research Report 568/2000, Espo, Finland, 2000

- Bryan Pearce, Per Gårder, and Travis Folsom, “A Roundabout Animation,” The New England University Transportation Center report, 50 pages, June 2000 (NTIS Report PB2000-/06030)

- “Roundabouts,” Status Report, Volume 35, No. 5, May 13, 2000, the Insurance Institute for Highway safety, pp1-3, 6.

- Bhagwant Persaud, Richard Retting, Per Garder, Dominique Lord, “ Crash Reductions Following Installation of Roundabouts in the United States,” published by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, May 2000

- Per Gårder, “Little Falls, Gorham—A Modern Roundabout,” Maine Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning, Research & Community Services, Transportation Research Division, Final Report, Technical Report 96-2b, September 1998

- John Larson, Bryan Pearce, Per Garder, “Animation of Traffic Through Roundabouts,” New England University Transportation Center, Grant No. DTRS95-G-0001, January 1998

- Per Gårder, “The Modern Roundabout: The Sensible Alternative for Maine”, Maine Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning, Research & Community Services, Transportation Research Division, Final Report, Technical Report 96-2, August 1997

- Forrest Council, David Dignes, Deborah Freund, Per Garder, Lindsay Griffin, Mike Griffith, John Hickey, Anne McCartt, William Rogers, John Viner, John Watson, David Willis, Clyde Woodle, “Use of Continuous Shoulder Rumble Strips” A Consensus Report by the National Sleep Foundation, Washington D.C., June 1997

- Lars Leden, Åke Claesson, Per Gårder, Per Näsman, Uhro Pulkinnen, and Thorbjörn Thedeen. “Metodik för före-/efterstudier—Tillämpat på cyklisters trafiksäkerhet.”  (Before and After Study Methodology—Applied to Bicyclists’ Safety); The Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB-Rapport 1997:15), Stockholm, Sweden, June 1997

- Per Gårder & John Alexander. “Continued Research on Continuous Rumble Strips.” Final Report, Technical Services Division, Maine Department of Transportation, December 1995

- William Manion, Dana Humphrey, and Per Garder, “Evaluation of Existing Aggregate Base Drainage Performance.” Transportation Research Division, Technical Paper 94-2, Maine Department of Transportation, December 1995

- Per Gårder & Judy Hakola. “Humanized Standards and the Public Participation Process.” Final Report, Technical Report 95-3, Maine Department of Transportation, August 1995

- Per Gårder & John Alexander. “Shoulder Rumble Strips for Improving Safety on Rural Interstates. Year One.”  Final report.  Technical Paper 94-4. Technical Services Division, Maine Department of Transportation, December 1994

 


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Civil and Environmental Engineering
5711 Boardman Hall
Orono, ME 04469-5711
Phone: 207-581-2171 | Fax: 207-581-3888
The University of Maine
Orono, Maine 04469
207.581.1865